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Vaccine Safety Publications by IVS Faculty

 2011 2010
 2009 2008 2007 2006 
2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999


Grant LR, Watt JP, Weatherholtz RC, Moulton LH, Reid R, Santosham M, O'Brien KL. Efficacy of a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine against  rotavirus gastroenteritis among American Indian children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012;31(2):184-8.  PubMed Abstract

Halsey NA, Edwards KM, Dekker CL, Klein NP, Baxter R, Larussa P, Marchant C, Slade B, Vellozzi C; the Causality Working Group of the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment network. Algorithm to assess causality after individual adverse events following immunizations. Vaccine 2012;30(39):5791-8.  PubMed Abstract

Rowhani-Rahbar A, Klein NP, Dekker CL, Edwards KM, Marchant CD, Vellozzi C, Fireman B, Sejvar JJ, Halsey NA, Baxter R; the Risk Interval Working Group of the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network. Biologically plausible and evidence-based risk intervals in immunization safety research. Vaccine 2012 Jul  24. [Epub ahead of print]  PubMed Abstract

Scott JR, Hanage WP, Lipsitch M, Millar EV, Moulton LH, Hinds J, Reid R, Santosham M, O'Brien KL. Pneumococcal sequence type replacement among American Indian children: a comparison of pre- and routine-PCV7 eras. Vaccine 2012;30(13):2376-81. PubMed Abstract

Sullender W, Fowler K, Krishnan A, Gupta V, Moulton LH, Lafond K, Widdowson MA, Lal RB, Broor S. Design and initiation of a study to assess the direct and indirect effects of influenza vaccine given to children in rural India. Vaccine 2012;30(35):5235-9. PubMed Abstract


Hussain H, Omer SB, Manganello JA, Kromm EE, Carter TC, Kan L, Stokley S, Halsey NA, Salmon DA. Immunization safety in US print media, 1995-2005. Pediatrics 2011;127 Suppl 1:S100-6.  PubMed Abstract

LaRussa PS, Edwards KM, Dekker CL, Klein NP, Halsey NA, Marchant C, Baxter R,  Engler RJ, Kissner J, Slade BA. Understanding the role of human variation in vaccine adverse events: the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network. Pediatrics 2011;127 Suppl 1:S65-73.  PubMed Abstract

Williams SE, Klein NP, Halsey N, Dekker CL, Baxter RP, Marchant CD, LaRussa PS, Sparks RC, Tokars JI, Pahud BA, Aukes L, Jakob K, Coronel S, Choi H, Slade BA, Edwards KM. Overview of the Clinical Consult Case Review of adverse events following immunization: Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) network 2004-2009. Vaccine 2011;29(40):6920-7.  PubMed Abstract

Williams SE, Pahud BA, Vellozzi C, Donofrio PD, Dekker CL, Halsey N, Klein NP, Baxter RP, Marchant CD, Larussa PS, Barnett ED, Tokars JI, McGeeney BE, Sparks RC, Aukes LL, Jakob K, Coronel S, Sejvar JJ, Slade BA, Edwards KM. Causality assessment of serious neurologic adverse events following 2009 H1N1 vaccination.  Vaccine 2011;29(46):8302-8. PubMed Abstract


Black S, Mulholland K, Halsey NA.  Developing sustainable funding for vaccine safety infrastructure.  Vaccine 2010;28(5):1133-4.  | No abstract available. Link to article

Black S, Eskola J, Siegrist CA, Halsey N, Macdonald N, Law B, Miller E, Andrews N, Stowe J, Salmon D, Vannice K, Izurieta HS, Akhtar A, Gold M, Oselka G, Zuber P, Pfeifer D, Vellozzi C. Importance of background rates of disease in assessment of vaccine safety during mass immunisation with pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccines. Lancet. 2009 Oct 30. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed Abstract


Asturias EJ, Mayorga C, Caffaro C, Ramirez P, Ram M, Verstraeten T, Clemens R, Halsey NA.  Differences in the immune response to hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in Guatemalan infants by ethnic group and nutritional status.  Vaccine 2009;27(27):3650-4.  PubMed Abstract

Bogdanovic J, Halsey NA, Wood RA, Hamilton RG.  Bovine and porcine gelatin sensitivity in children sensitized to milk and meat.  J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;124(5):1108-10. PubMed Abstract

Durbin AP, Setse R, Omer SB, Palmer JG, Spaeder JA, Baker J, Lessans F, Halsey NA.  Monitoring adverse events following yellow fever vaccination using an integrated telephone and Internet-based system. Vaccine 2009;27(44):6143-7.  PubMed Abstract

Salmon DA, Smith PJ, Pan WK, Navar AM, Omer SB, Halsey NA. Disparities in preschool immunization coverage associated with maternal age.  Hum Vaccin 2009 Aug;5(8):557-61. PubMed Abstract

Salmon DA, Sotir MJ, Pan WK, Berg JL, Omer SB, Stokley S, Hopfensperger DJ, Davis JP, Halsey NA.  Parental vaccine refusal in Wisconsin: a case-control study.  WMJ 2009 Feb;108(1):17-23. PubMed Abstract

Tamma PD, Ault KA, del Rio C, Steinhoff MC, Halsey NA, Omer SB.  Safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009;201(6):547-52.  PubMed Abstract


Halsey NA. The human papillomavirus vaccine and risk of anaphylaxis. CMAJ 2008;179(6):509-10.  link to article

Hussain H, Waters H, Khan AJ, Omer SB, Halsey NA. Economic analysis of childhood pneumonia in Northern Pakistan. Health Policy Plan 2008 Aug 28. PubMed Abstract

Salmon DA, Pan WK, Omer SB, Navar AM, Orenstein W, Marcuse EK, Taylor J, deHart MP, Stokley S, Carter T, Halsey NA. Vaccine knowledge and practices of primary care providers of exempt vs. vaccinated children. Hum Vaccin 2008 Jul-Aug;4(4):286-91. Epub 2008 Feb 19. PubMed Abstract

Wood RA, Berger M, Dreskin SC, Setse R, Engler RJ, Dekker CL, Halsey NA; the Hypersensitivity Working Group of the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network. An Algorithm for Treatment of Patients With Hypersensitivity Reactions After Vaccines. Pediatrics 2008 Sep;122(3):e771-e777. PubMed Abstract



Asturias EJ, Dueger EL, Omer SB, Melville A, Nates SV, Laassri M, Chumakov K, Halsey NA. Randomized trial of inactivated and live polio vaccine schedules in Guatemalan infants. J Infect Dis 2007 Sep 1;196(5):692-8. Epub 2007 Jul 23. PubMed Abstract 

Navar AM, Halsey NA, Carter TC, Montgomery MP, Salmon DA. Prenatal immunization education the pediatric prenatal visit and routine obstetric care. Am J Prev Med 2007 Sep;33(3):211-3. PubMed Abstract

Thompson JW, Tyson S, Card-Higginson P, Jacobs RF, Wheeler JG, Simpson P, Bost JE, Ryan KW, Salmon DA. Impact of addition of philosophical exemptions on childhood immunization rates. Am J Prev Med. 2007 Mar;32(3):194-201. PubMed Abstract


Asturias EJ, Grazioso CF, Luna-Fineman S, Torres O, Halsey NA. Poliovirus excretion in Guatemalan adults and children with HIV infection and children with cancer. Biologicals 2006;34(2):109-12. PubMed Abstract

Halsey NA. Measles in developing countries. BMJ 2006;333(7581):1234. comment - no PubMed Abstract

Hiremath GS, Omer SB. A meta-analysis of studies comparing the respiratory route with the subcutaneous route of measles vaccine administration. Hum Vaccin 2005;1(1):30-6. PubMed Abstract

Hussain H, Waters H, Omer SB, Khan A, Baig IY, Mistry R, Halsey N. The cost of treatment for child pneumonias and meningitis in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. Int J Health Plann Manage 2006;21(3):229-38. PubMed Abstract

Khan AJ, Gebreselassie H, Asturias EJ, Agboatwalla M, Teklehaimanot R, Luby SP, Bayene B, Chezzi C, Asghar H, Moatter T, Torres OR, Kew O, Winkelstein J, Halsey NA. No evidence for prolonged excretion of polioviruses in persons with residual paralytic poliomyelitis in Ethiopia, Pakistan and Guatemala. Biologicals 2006;34(2):113-6. PubMed Abstract

Linkins RW, Salmon DA, Omer SB, Pan WK, Stokley S, Halsey NA. Support for immunization registries among parents of vaccinated and unvaccinated school-aged children: a case control study. BMC Public Health 2006;6:236. PubMed Abstract

MacIntyre CR, Kelly H, Jolley D, Butzkueven H, Salmon D, Halsey N, Moulton LH. Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a prospective study. Neurology 2005;64(7):1317; author reply 1317. comment - no PubMed Abstract

Modlin JF, Halsey NA. Excretion of oral poliovirus vaccine strains: effect of vaccination schedule. J Infect Dis 2006;193(11):1614-5. comment - no PubMed Abstract

Moulton LH, O'Brien KL, Reid R, Weatherholtz R, Santosham M, Siber GR. Evaluation of the indirect effects of a pneumococcal vaccine in a community-randomized study. J Biopharm Stat 2006;16(4):453-62. PubMed Abstract

Moulton LH, Rahmathullah L, Halsey NA, Thulasiraj RD, Katz J, Tielsch JM. Evaluation of non-specific effects of infant immunizations on early infant mortality in a southern Indian population. Trop Med Int Health 2005;10(10):947-55. PubMed Abstract

Omer SB, Pan WK, Halsey NA, Stokley S, Moulton LH, Navar AM, Pierce M, Salmon DA. Nonmedical exemptions to school immunization requirements: secular trends and association of state policies with pertussis incidence. JAMA 2006;296(14):1757-63. PubMed Abstract

Salmon DA, Omer SB. Individual freedoms versus collective responsibility: immunization decision-making in the face of occasionally competing values. Emerg Themes Epidemiol 2006;3:13. PubMed Abstract

Salmon DA, Smith PJ, Navar AM, Pan WK, Omer SB, Singleton JA, Halsey NA. Measuring immunization coverage among preschool children: past, present, and future opportunities. Epidemiol Rev 2006;28:27-40. PubMed Abstract

Salmon DA, Teret SP, MacIntyre CR, Salisbury D, Burgess MA, Halsey NA. Compulsory vaccination and conscientious or philosophical exemptions: past, present, and future. Lancet 2006;367(9508):436-42. PubMed abstract

Uscher-Pines L, Omer SB, Barnett DJ, Burke TA, Balicer RD. Priority setting for pandemic influenza: an analysis of national preparedness plans.
PLoS Med 2006;3(10):e436. PubMed abstract



Gessner BD, Sutanto A, Linehan M, Djelantik IG, Fletcher T, Gerudug IK, Ingerani, Mercer D, Moniaga V, Moulton LH, Moulton LH, Mulholland K, Nelson C, Soemohardjo S, Steinhoff M, Widjaya A, Stoeckel P, Maynard J, Arjoso S. Incidences of vaccine-preventable Haemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia and meningitis in Indonesian children: hamlet-randomised vaccine-probe trial. Lancet 2005 Jan 1;365(9453):43-52. PubMed abstract

Hiremath GS, Omer SB. A meta-analysis of studies comparing the respiratory route with the subcutaneous route of measles vaccine administration. Hum Vaccin. 2005 Jan-Feb;1(1):30-6. Epub 2005 Jan 12. PubMed abstract  |  Article

MacIntyre CR, Kelly H, Jolley D, Butzkueven H, Salmon D, Halsey N, Moulton LH. Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a prospective study. Neurology 2005 Apr 12;64(7):1317; author reply 1317. Letter - No PubMed abstract

Moulton LH, Rahmathullah L, Halsey NA, Thulasiraj RD, Katz J, Tielsch JM.  Evaluation of non-specific effects of infant immunizations on early infant mortality in a southern Indian population. Trop Med Int Health 2005 Oct;10(10):947-55.  PubMed abstract

Salmon DA, Halsey N, Moulton L.  A dose of confidence.  December 21, 2004 Op/Ed.  Baltimore Sun

Salmon DA, Moulton LH, Omer SB, DeHart MP, Stokley S, Halsey NA. Factors associated with refusal of childhood vaccines among parents of school-aged children: a case-control study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005 May;159(5):470-6. PubMed abstract

Salmon DA, Omer SB, Moulton LH, Stokley S, Dehart MP, Lett S, Norman B, Teret S, Halsey NA. Exemptions to school immunization requirements: the role of school-level requirements, policies, and procedures. Am J Public Health 2005 Mar;95(3):436-40. PubMed abstract

Salmon DA, Sapsin JW, Teret S, Jacobs RF, Thompson JW, Ryan K, Halsey NA. Public health and the politics of school immunization requirements. Am J Public Health 2005 May;95(5):778-83. Review. PubMed abstract


Aronson NE, Santosham M, Comstock GW, Howard RS, Moulton LH, Rhoades ER, Harrison LH.  Long-term efficacy of BCG vaccine in American Indians and Alaska Natives: A 60-year follow-up study. JAMA 2004 May 5;291(17):2086-91.  PubMed abstract

Bonhoeffer J, Menkes J, Gold MS, de Souza-Brito G, Fisher MC, Halsey N, Vermeer P; Brighton Collaboration Seizure Working Group. Generalized convulsive seizure as an adverse event following immunization: case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation. Vaccine 2004 Jan 26;22(5-6):557-62. Review. No abstract available.

Halsey NA, Pinto J, Espinosa-Rosales F, Faure-Fontenla MA, da Silva E, Khan AJ, Webster AD, Minor P, Dunn G, Asturias E, Hussain H, Pallansch MA, Kew OM, Winkelstein J, Sutter R; Polio Project Team.  Search for poliovirus carriers among people with primary immune deficiency diseases in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Bull World Health Organ 2004 Jan;82(1):3-8.  PubMed abstract | pdf [121 kb]

Kalies H, Verstraeten T, Grote V, Meyer N, Siedler A, Schmitt HJ, Breuer T, Moulton LH, von Kries R; Erhebungseinheit fur seltene padiatrische Erkrankungen in Deutschland Study Group. Four and one-half-year follow-up of the effectiveness of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis/Haemophilus influenzae type b and diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus/H. influenzae type b combination vaccines in Germany. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004 Oct;23(10):944-50. PubMed abstract

Perry RT, Halsey NA. The clinical significance of measles: a review. J Infect Dis 2004 May 1;189 Suppl 1:S4-16. Review. PubMed abstract

Rothstein E, Kohl KS, Ball L, Halperin SA, Halsey N, Hammer SJ, Heath PT, Hennig R, Kleppinger C, Labadie J, Varricchio F, Vermeer P, Walop W; Brighton Collaboration Local Reaction Working Group. Nodule at injection site as an adverse event following immunization: case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation. Vaccine 2004 Jan 26;22(5-6):575-85. Review. No abstract available.

Salmon DA, Moulton LH, Halsey NA.  Enhancing public confidence in vaccines through independent oversight of postlicensure vaccine safety. Am J Public Health 2004 Jun;94(6):947-50.  PubMed abstract

Salmon DA, Moulton LH, Omer SB, Chace LM, Klassen A, Talebian P, Halsey NA.  Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of school nurses and personnel and associations with nonmedical immunization exemptions. Pediatrics 2004 Jun;113(6):e552-9. PubMed abstract

Sever JL, Brenner AI, Gale AD, Lyle JM, Moulton LH, Ward BJ, West DJ. Safety of anthrax vaccine: an expanded review and evaluation of adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2004 Feb 11;13(12):825-40.  PubMed abstract



Asturias EJ, Soto M, Menendez R, Ramirez PL, Recinos F, Gordillo R, Holt E, Halsey NA.  Meningitis and pneumonia in Guatemalan children: the importance of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Rev Panam Salud Publica 2003 Dec;14(6):377-84.  PubMed abstract

Bartlett J, Borio L, Radonovich L, Mair JS, O'Toole T, Mair M, Halsey N, Grow R, Inglesby TV.  Smallpox vaccination in 2003: key information for clinicians. Clin Infect Dis 2003 Apr 1;36(7):883-902. No abstract available.   

Halsey NA.  A causal association between Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine and diabetes. Autoimmunity 2003 May;36(3):123.  PubMed link (no abstract)

Halsey NA.  Commentary: poliomyelitis and unnecessary injections. Int J Epidemiol 2003 Apr;32(2):278-9.  PubMed link (no abstract)

Halsey N, Rose N.  Questions and answers about autoimmunity and the smallpox vaccine. Isr Med Assoc J 2003 Jan;5(1):40-1.  

Moss WJ, Clements CJ, Halsey NA.  Immunization of children at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Bull World Health Organ 2003;81(1):61-70. Epub 2003 Mar 11. Review.  PubMed abstract | pdf

O'Brien KL, Moulton LH, Reid R, Weatherholtz R, Oski J, Brown L, Kumar G, Parkinson A, Hu D, Hackell J, Chang I, Kohberger R, Siber G, Santosham M.  Efficacy and safety of seven-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine in American Indian children: group randomised trial. Lancet 2003 Aug 2;362(9381):355-61.  PubMed abstract 


Ball R, Halsey N, Braun MM, Moulton LH, Gale AD, Rammohan K, Wiznitzer M, Johnson R, Salive ME; VAERS Working Group.  Development of case definitions for acute encephalopathy, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis reports to the vaccine: Adverse Event Reporting System. J Clin Epidemiol 2002 Aug;55(8):819-24.  PubMed abstract

Furth SL, Hogg RJ, Tarver J, Moulton LH, Chan C, Fivush BA; Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group.  Varicella vaccination in children with chronic renal failure. A report of the Southwest Pediatric Nephrology Study Group. Pediatr Nephrol 2003 Jan;18(1):33-8. Epub 2002 Nov 22.  PubMed abstract

Halsey NA.  Anthrax vaccine and causality assessment from individual case reports. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2002 Apr-May;11(3):185-7; discussion 203-4. PubMed link (no abstract)

Halsey NA.  The need for immunoglobulin for travelers who receive hepatitis A vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002 Jun;21(6):576-7.  PubMed link (no abstract)

Halsey NA.  The science of evaluation of adverse events associated with vaccination. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 2002 Jul;13(3):205-14. Review. PubMed abstract 

Leitch R, Halsey N, Hyman SL.  MMR--Separate administration-has it been done● Pediatrics 2002 Jan;109(1):172.  PubMed link (no abstract)

Sever JL, Brenner AI, Gale AD, Lyle JM, Moulton LH, West DJ; Anthrax Vaccine Export Committee. Safety of anthrax vaccine: a review by the Anthrax Vaccine Expert Committee (AVEC) of adverse events reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2002 Apr-May;11(3):189-202. Review. PubMed abstract


Halsey NA.  Combination vaccines: defining and addressing current safety concerns. Clin Infect Dis 2001 Dec 15;33 Suppl 4:S312-8. Review.  PubMed abstract

Halsey NA.  Safety of combination vaccines: perception versus reality. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2001 Nov;20(11 Suppl):S40-4. Review.  PubMed abstract

Halsey NA, Goldman L.  Balancing risks and benefits: Primum non nocere is too simplistic. Pediatrics 2001 Aug;108(2):466-7.  PubMed link (no abstract)

Halsey NA, Hyman SL; Conference Writing Panel.  Measles-mumps-rubella vaccine and autistic spectrum disorder: report from the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12-13, 2000. Pediatrics 2001 May;107(5):E84. Review.  PubMed abstract

Moulton LH, O'Brien KL, Kohberger R, Chang I, Reid R, Weatherholtz R, Hackell JG, Siber GR, Santosham M.  Design of a group-randomized Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine trial. Control Clin Trials 2001 Aug;22(4):438-52.  PubMed abstract

Sikand VK, Halsey N, Krause PJ, Sood SK, Geller R, Van Hoecke C, Buscarino C, Parenti D; Pediatric Lyme Vaccine Study Group.  Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A vaccine against lyme disease in healthy children and adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 2001 Jul;108(1):123-8.  PubMed abstract


Feikin DR, Lezotte DC, Hamman RF, Salmon DA, Chen RT, Hoffman RE.  Individual and community risks of measles and pertussis associated with personal exemptions to immunization. JAMA 2000 Dec 27;284(24):3145-50.  PubMed abstract

Moulton LH, Chung S, Croll J, Reid R, Weatherholtz RC, Santosham M.  Estimation of the indirect effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in an American Indian population. Int J Epidemiol 2000 Aug;29(4):753-6.  PubMed abstract

Qureshi H, Gessner BD, Leboulleux D, Hasan H, Alam SE, Moulton LH.  The incidence of vaccine preventable influenza-like illness and medication use among Pakistani pilgrims to the Haj in Saudi Arabia. Vaccine 2000 Jul 1;18(26):2956-62.  PubMed abstract


Halsey NA.  Limiting infant exposure to thimerosal in vaccines and other sources of mercury. JAMA 1999 Nov 10;282(18):1763-6.  PubMed link (no abstract)

Halsey NA, Duclos P, Van Damme P, Margolis H.  Hepatitis B vaccine and central nervous system demyelinating diseases. Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999 Jan;18(1):23-4. Review.   PubMed link (no abstract)

Halsey NA, Moulton LH, O'Donovan JC, Walcher JR, Thoms ML, Margolis HS, Krause DS.  Hepatitis B vaccine administered to children and adolescents at yearly intervals. Pediatrics 1999 Jun;103(6 Pt 1):1243-7.  PubMed abstract

The Institute for Vaccine Safety Diabetes Workshop Panel. Childhood immunizations and type 1 diabetes: summary of an Institute for Vaccine Safety Workshop. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1999 Mar;18(3):217-22. Review. PubMed link (no abstract)

Salmon DA, Haber M, Gangarosa EJ, Phillips L, Smith NJ, Chen RT.  Health consequences of religious and philosophical exemptions from immunization laws: individual and societal risk of measles. JAMA 1999 Jul 7;282(1):47-53. Erratum in: JAMA 2000 May 3;283(17):2241.  PubMed abstract